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All-optical control of high-purity trions in nanoscale waveguide
The generation of high-purity localized trions, dynamic exciton–trion interconversion, and their spatial modulation in two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors are building blocks for the realization of trion-based optoelectronic devices. Here, we present a method for the all-optical control of the exciton-to-trion conversion process and its spatial distributions in a MoS2 monolayer. We induce a nanoscale strain gradient in a 2D crystal transferred on a lateral metal–insulator–metal (MIM) waveguide and exploit propagating surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) to localize hot electrons. These significantly increase the electrons and efficiently funnel excitons in the lateral MIM waveguide, facilitating complete exciton-to-trion conversion even at ambient conditions. Additionally, we modulate the SPP mode using adaptive wavefront shaping, enabling all-optical control of the exciton-to-trion conversion rate and trion distribution in a reversible manner. Our work provides a platform for harnessing excitonic quasiparticles efficiently in the form of trions at ambient conditions, enabling high-efficiency photoconversion.